Maxima is a fairly complete computer algebra system written in Lisp with an It is based on DOE-MACSYMA and licensed under the GPL free software license. his time and expert knowledge to keep the original DOE Macsyma code alive. A prototype “expert” system for the treatment of certain nonlinear filtering problems is described with illustrative examples. The system is written in MACSYMA. purpose is to provide a perspective on Macsyma so that, as new systems are gramming language or “rule-based expert system” technology, and demonstrates .
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Wikipedia has related information at Dendral. Dendral was an influential pioneer project in artificial intelligence AI of the s, and the computer software expert system that it produced.
Its primary aim was to help organic chemists in identifying unknown organic molecules, by analyzing their mass spectra and using knowledge of chemistry. The software program Dendral is considered the first expert system because it automated the decision-making process and problem-solving behavior of organic chemists.
The name Dendral is a portmanteaux of the term “Dendritic Algorithm”. Heuristic Dendral is a program that uses mass spectra or other experimental data together with knowledge base of chemistry, to produce a set of possible chemical structures that may be responsible for producing the data.
For example, the compound water H2Ohas a molecular weight of 18 since hydrogen has a mass of 1.
Maxima, a Computer Algebra System
Heuristic Dendral would use this input mass and the knowledge of atomic mass numbers and valence rules, to determine the possible combinations of atomic constituents whose mass sydtem add up to Thus, a program that is able mqcsyma reduce this number of candidate solutions through the process of hypothesis formation is essential.
Meta-Dendral is a knowledge acquisition system that receives the set of possible chemical structures and corresponding mass spectra as input, and proposes a set of hypotheses to explain correlation between some of the proposed structures and the mass spectrum. The plan-generate-test paradigm is the basic organization of the problem-solving method, and is a common paradigm used by expery Heuristic Dendral and Meta-Dendral systems.
When there are large numbers of possible solutions, Dendral has to find a way to put constraints that rules out large sets of candidate solutions.
The primary aim of knowledge engineering is to attain a productive interaction between the available knowledge base and problem solving techniques. Thus, at the end the user is now provided with a minimal number of espert solutions, which can now be tested by any non-expert user to find the right solution.
A heuristic is a rule of thumb, an algorithm that does not guarantee a solution, but reduces the number of possible solutions by discarding unlikely and irrelevant solutions. Heuristics programming was a major macsymz and a giant step forward in artificial intelligence,  as it allowed scientists to finally automate certain traits of human intelligence.
A New Aspect of Mathematical Method. During mid 20th century, macysma question “can machines think? John McCarthy, who was one of the prime researchers of this field, termed this concept of machine intelligence as “artificial intelligence” AI during the Dartmouth summer in AI is usually defined as the capacity of a machine to perform operations that are analogous to human cognitive capabilities.
Maxima, a Computer Algebra System
Also around mid 20th century, science, especially biology, faced a fast-increasing need to develop a “man-computer symbiosis”, to aid scientists in solving problems. In the early s, Joshua Lederberg started working with computers and quickly became tremendously interested in creating interactive computers to help him in his exobiology research.
Dendral then was still very inaccurate in assessing spectra of ketones, alcohols, and isomers of chemical compounds.
The Introduction of Computers to Biology and Medicine” Buchanan wanted the system Dendral to make discoveries on its own, not just help humans make them”.
Buchanan designed “Meta-Dendral”, which was a “hypothesis maker”. From Wikibooks, open books for eexpert open world.