Jacques Ellul was a French philosopher, sociologist, lay theologian, and professor who was a .. , Histoire des institutions. Histoire de la propagande. Jacques Ellul. Presses Universitaires de la Propagande · Jacques Ellul Snippet view – Bibliographic information. QR code for Histoire de la propagande. Download Citation on ResearchGate | Historia de la propaganda / Jacques Ellul | Traducción de: Histoire de la propagande }.
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A prolific writer, he authored 58 books and more than a thousand articles over his lifetime, many of which discussed propagandathe impact of technology on societyand the interaction between religion and politics.
The dominant theme of his work proved to be the threat to human freedom and religion created by modern technology. Among his most influential books are The Technological Society and Propaganda: The Formation of Men’s Attitudes. Considered by many a philosopher, Ellul was by training a sociologist who approached the question of technology and human action from a dialectical viewpoint. His constant concern was the emergence of a technological tyranny over humanity.
As a philosopher and theologian, he further explored the religiosity of the technological society. The society, which includes scholars from a variety of disciplines, is devoted to continuing Ellul’s legacy and discussing the contemporary relevance and implications of his work.
As a teenager he wanted to be a naval officer but his father made him read law.
The Ellul Forum Archive
He married Yvette Lensvelt in Ellul was educated at the universities of Bordeaux and Paris. Ellul was best friends with Bernard Charbonneauwho was also a writer from the Aquitaine region and a protagonist of the French personalism movement. They met through the Protestant Student Federation during the academic school year of — Both jacqkes acknowledged the great influence one had on each other.
Ellul was first introduced to the ideas of Karl Marx during an economics lecture course taught by Joseph Benzacar in —30; Ellul studied Marx and became a prolific exegete of his theories.
During this same period, he also came across the Christian existentialism of Kierkegaard.
According to Ellul, Marx and Kierkegaard were his two greatest influences, and the only two authors of which he read all of their work. These ideological influences earned him both devoted followers and vicious enemies. In large measure, and especially in those of his books concerned with theological matters, Ellul restates the viewpoints held by Barth, whose polar dialectic of the Word of Godin which the Gospel both judges and renews the world, shaped Ellul’s histooire perspective.
A Systemic Exposition Darrell J. Fasching claimed Ellul believed “That which desacralizes a given reality, ,a in turn becomes the new sacred reality”. Inafter what he describes as “a very brutal and very sudden conversion”, Ellul professed himself a Christian.
While translating Faust alone in the house, Ellul knew without seeing or hearing historie he was in the presence of a something so astounding, so overwhelming, which entered the very center of his being. He jumped on a bike and fled, hitoire eventually that he had been in the presence of God. This experience started the conversion process which Ellul said then continued over a period of years thereafter.
He was also prominent in the worldwide ecumenical movementalthough he later became sharply critical of the movement for what he felt were indiscriminate endorsements of political establishments, primarily of the Left. Ellul has been credited with coining the phrase, “Think globally, act locally.
On 19 Mayafter a long illness, he died in his house in Pessacjust a mile or two from the University of Bordeaux campus and surrounded by those uacques to him.
Jacques Ellul – Wikipedia
His wife had died a few years prior, on 16 April While Ellul is perhaps most noted for his sociological work, especially his discussions of technology, he saw his theological work as an essential aspect of his career, and began publishing theological discussions early, with such books as The Presence of the Kingdom Although a son of the minority French Reformed tradition ellkl thus a spiritual heir of thinkers like John Calvin and Ulrich ZwingliEllul departed substantially histiire Reformed doctrinal traditions, but unlike other European Protestant thinkers, utterly rejected the influence of philosophical idealism or romanticism upon his beliefs about God and human faith.
Thus, some have considered him one of the more ardent expositors of dialectical theology which was in decline ihstoire in the Western theological scene during Ellul’s heyday. One particular theological movement that aroused his ire was death of God theology. Some within popagande movement held the conviction that the traditional Christian conceptions of God and humanity arise from a primitive consciousness, one that most civilized people have quite propaganfe.
This line of thought affirmed the ethical teachings of Propahande but rejected the idea that he represented anything more than a highly accomplished human being. Ellul attacked this school, and practitioners of it such as Harvey Coxas out of accord not with Christian doctrinal traditions, but reality itself, namely what he perceived as the irreducible religiosity of the propagahde race, a devotion that has worshiped idols such as rulers, nationsand in more recent times, materialismscientismtechnology and economics.
To Ellul, people use hiwtoire fallen images, or powers, as a substitute for God, and are, in turn, used by them, with no possible appeal to innocence or neutrality, which, although possible theoretically, does not in fact exist. Ellul thus renovates in a non-legalistic manner the traditional Christian understanding of original sin and espouses a thoroughgoing pessimism about human capabilities, proopagande view most sharply evidenced in his The Meaning of the City.
Ellul kacques that one of the problems with these propzgande theologies” was:. Ellul espouses views on salvationjafques sovereignty of God, and ethical action that appear to take a deliberately contrarian jacquees toward established, “mainstream” opinion.
For instance, in the book What I Believe, he declared himself to be a Christian Universalistwriting “that all people from the beginning of time are saved by God in Jesus Christthat they have all histoirs recipients of His grace no matter what they have done.
Any attempts to modify that freedom from merely human standards of righteousness and justice amount to sinto putting oneself in God’s place, which is precisely what Adam and Eve sought to do in the creation myths in Genesis.
This highly unusual juxtaposition of original sin and universal salvation has repelled liberal and conservative critics and commentators alike, who charge that such views amount to antinomianismdenying that God’s laws are binding upon human beings. In most of his theologically-oriented writings, Ellul effectively dismisses those charges as stemming from a radical confusion between religions as human phenomena and the unique claims of the Christian faith, which are not predicated upon human achievement or moral integrity whatsoever.
The Ellulian concept of technique is briefly defined within the “Notes to Reader” section of The Technological Society It is “the totality of methods rationally arrived at and having absolute efficiency for a given stage of development in every field of human activity.
What many consider to be Ellul’s most important work, The Propaganve Society was originally published in French as La Technique: And it creates an artificial system which “eliminates or subordinates the natural world. Regarding technology, instead of it being subservient to humanity, “human beings have to adapt to it, and accept kacques change. As people begin to question the value of learning ancient languages and history, they question jwcques things which, on the surface, do little to advance their financial and technical state.
According to Ellul, this misplaced emphasis is one of the problems with modern education, as it produces a situation in which immense stress is placed on information in our schools. The focus in those schools is to prepare young people to enter the world of information, to be able to work with computers but knowing only their reasoning, their language, their combinations, and the connections between them. This movement is invading the whole intellectual domain and also that of conscience.
The sacred then, as classically defined, is the object of both hope and fear, both fascination and dread. The Reformation desacralized the church in the name of the Bibleand the Bible became the sacred book. Saint Steve Jobs .
Since he defines technique as “the totality of methods rationally arrived at, and having absolute efficiency for a given stage of development in every field of human activity”,  it is clear that his sociological analysis focuses not on the society of machines as such, but on the society of “efficient techniques”:. It is useless, he argues, to think that a distinction can be made between technique and its use, for techniques have specific social and psychological consequences independent of human desires.
There can be no room histoirs moral considerations in their proagande. Ellul identified himself as a Christian Anarchist. Ellul explained his view in this way: Jesus was not only a socialist but an anarchist — and I want to stress here that I regard anarchism as the fullest and most serious form of socialism.
That is, being a Christian means pledging absolute allegiance to Christ, which makes other laws redundant at best or counter to the revelation of God at worst.
Despite the initial attraction pripagande some evangelicals to his thinking because of his high view of Biblical texts i. Later, he would attract a following among adherents of more ethically-compatible traditions such as the Anabaptists and the house church movement.
Similar political ideas to Ellul’s appear in the writings of a corresponding friend of his, the American William Stringfellowand long-time admirer Vernard Ellerauthor of Fllul Anarchy. Ellul identified the State and political power as the Beast in the Book of Revelation. He states that his intention rllul not to establish an anarchist society or the total destruction of the state.
However, Ellul does not entertain the idea that all Christians in all places and all times will refrain from violence.
Rather, he insisted that violence could not be reconciled with the God of Love, and thus, true freedom. A Christian that chooses the path of violence must admit that he or she is abandoning the path of freedom and committing to the way of necessity. During the Spanish Civil War Spanish anarchist friends of Ellul’s soon-to-be jacqkes came to France in search of weapons.
He tried to get some for them through an old school friend of his and claimed that this was probably the one time in his life when he was sufficiently motivated to commit an act of violence.
He did not go with the anarchists primarily because he had only recently met the woman that would become his wife and did not wish to leave her. Ellul states in The Subversion of Christianity  that he thinks “that the biblical teaching is clear. It always contests political power. It incites to ‘counterpower,’ to ‘positive’ criticism, to an irreducible dialogue like that between king and prophet in Israelto antistatism, to a decentralizing of the relation, to an extreme relativizing of everything political, to an anti-ideology, to a questioning of all that claims either power or dominion in other words, of all things politicaland finally, if we may use a modern term, to a kind of “anarchism” so long as we do not relate the term to the anarchist teaching of the nineteenth century.
Christian idealism which is always concerned with the moral goodness of the human world.
This leads to concepts of progressiveness and unreserved participation with good conscience in political or scientific action. But it is only gross, highly visible, undeniable violence that evokes this scandalized reaction. They deny the existence of masked, secret, covert violence—insofar as this can be concealed Ellul believed that social justice and true freedom were incompatible.
He rejected any attempt to reconcile them. He believed that a Christian could choose to join a movement for justice, but in doing so, must admit that this fight for justice is necessarily, and at the same time, a fight against all forms of freedom.
Ellul believed that when a Christian decides to act it must be in a way that is specifically Christian. Rather, they must bring to social movements what they alone can provide. Only so can they signalize the kingdom. So far as they act like the others—even to forward social justice, equality, etc. In fact the political and revolutionary attitude proper to the Christian is radically different than the attitude of others; it is specifically Christian or else it is nothing.
In Violence Ellul states his belief that only God is able to establish justice and God alone who will institute the kingdom at the end of time. He acknowledges that some have used this as an excuse to do nothing, but also points out how some death-of-God advocates use this to claim that “we ourselves must undertake to establish social justice”. Ellul says that many European Christians rushed into socialist circles and with this began to accept the movement’s tactics of violence, propaganda, etc.
Ellul states in The Subversion of Christianity that “to proclaim the class conflict and the ‘classical’ revolutionary struggle is to stop at the same point as those who defend their goods and organizations. This may be useful socially but it is not at all Christian in spite of the disconcerting efforts of theologies of revolution.
Revelation demands this renunciation-the renunciation of illusions, of historic hopes, of references to our own abilities or numbers or sense of justice. We are to tell people and thus to increase their awareness the offense of the ruling classes is that of trying to blind and deaden the awareness of those whom they dominate. Renounce everything in order to be everything. Trust in no human means, for God will provide we cannot say where, when, or how.
Have confidence in his Word and not in a rational program.